Brookhaven Elementary School

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3rd Grade » 3rd Grade ELA Lesson Plans

3rd Grade ELA Lesson Plans

 

 

Daily Agenda

 

Dates:  Jan. 7-18, 2019                                                   Subject / Grade: ELA / 3rd                              

STANDARDS:  RL.3.3, RI.3.2    RF.3.4a      L3.1a, 3.1g, 3.2     SL.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6      W.3.3abcd

Week 1  (January 7-11)  

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

 TTW review character traits, motivations, and feelings with students by looking back into their interactive notebooks. TTW then handout to students the passage “Cosmic Ice Cream”. TTW guide students to read the passage and answer the character questions.

Comprehension

TTW review sequence with students from the interactive notebook. She will discuss with students how a characters actions can contribute to the sequence of events. TTW then handout the passage “Sweet Tooth”. Students will work in groups read the passage and answer the questions. TTW then go over the answers with students.  

Comprehension

Centers

1.) Teacher Center- Borrowed Book passage to practice character trait skills.

2.) Classworks

3.) Vocabulary

 

 

Comprehension

Centers

1.) Teacher Center- Guided Narrative Write.

2.) Classworks

3.) John Henry passage to work on character trait skills.

Comprehension


Students will complete a Reading Daily grade.

Language

Vocabulary:  One word from the text to directly teach: sensitive- highly aware or feeling things strongly. (adj)

 

Grammar:  TTW review nouns with students. They will then complete pgs. 398-399 of the Ready book. TTW go over answers with students.

Language

Vocabulary:  One word from the text to directly teach: tempting- to cause someone to strongly want to do something. (v)

 

 

Grammar:  TTW review pronouns with students. They will then complete pgs. 400- 401 of the Ready book. TTW go over answers with students.

 

Language

Vocabulary: One word from the text to directly teach: overwhelmed- to load with too much of something. (v)

 

 

Grammar: TTW review verbs with students. They will then complete pgs. 402-403 from the Ready book. TTW go over the answers with students.

Language

Vocabulary: One word from the text to directly teach: legend- a story or person that has been told about and handed down from a long time ago. (n)

 

Grammar:  Skills for the week will be used during writing in the writing center.

Language

Vocabulary: TTW review the words learned this week and skill words.

 

Grammar: TTW review the parts of speech that have been covered this week.

Writing

TTW review narrative writing parts, transition words, and graphic organizer with students. TTW tell students that she will do a model writing today. TSW copy what the teacher writes and keep the example in their writing binders. TTW read the passage Moving or Staying, read and discuss the prompt. Then think aloud to complete the graphic organizer.

Writing

TTW tell students that she will finish the model writing today. TSW copy what the teacher writes and keep the example in their writing binders. TTW reread and discuss the prompt. Review the graphic organizer they completed previously. Discuss what was written and discuss how to turn it into a paragraph.

Writing

TTW instruct the students to take out their paragraphs from yesterday. Finish any writing that needs to be finished. Then TTW color code the parts of a narrative writing using the completed paragraph.

Writing

 

 Covered in the writing center.

 

Writing

Complete any writings that need to be finished.

 

*Type writings in Google Classroom for typing practice.

 

 

Phonics:  The class will read grade level passages with purpose and understanding.

 

 

STANDARDS: RL.3.3, RI.3.2    RF.3.4a      L3.1a, 3.1g, 3.2     SL.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6      W.3.3abcd

Week 2  (January 14-18)

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

TTW review main idea and details with students from the interactive notebook. TTW then handout to students the passage “Polar Bears”. TTW guide students to find the main idea and details.

 

Comprehension

TTW ask students to explain to her what a main idea is. TSW answer. TTW then handout the passage “Frostbite”. Students will work in a group to read the passage and answer the questions. TTW go over the answers with the class.

 

Comprehension

Centers

1.) Teacher Center- Chapped Lips passage to practice main idea.

2.) Classworks

3.) Vocabulary

  

Comprehension

Centers

1.) Teacher Center- Writing that students have been working on independently.

2.) Classworks

3.) Independent pages in Ready book 32-36.

 

Comprehension

Students will complete their first Biweekly Test of the third nine weeks.

Language

Vocabulary: One word from the text to directly teach: enclosures- a space that is surrounded. (n)

Grammar:  TTW review adjectives with students. They will then complete pgs. 404-405 of the Ready book. TTW go over answers with the students.

Language

Vocabulary: One word from the text to directly teach: exposed- to uncover or reveal. (v)

Grammar:  TTW review adverbs with students. They will then complete pgs. 406-407 of the Ready book. TTW go over answers with the students.

Language

Vocabulary: One word from the text to directly teach: sensation- a condition of being aware of something or feeling something. (n)

Grammar:  TTW introduce to students comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs. TTW guide students through page 422 of the Ready book. TSW then complete page 423 independently. TTW go over the answers with students.

 

Language

Vocabulary: One word from the text to directly teach: ancient- very old; existing for many years. (adj)

 

Grammar: Skills for the week will be used during writing in the writing center. 

Language

Vocabulary: TSW be tested on their vocabulary on their biweekly test.

 

Grammar: Students will apply skills as they do their test.

 

Writing

 TSW complete a narrative writing independently throughout the week. TTW review the parts of a narrative writing, transition words, and go over the prompt with students.

Writing

TSW complete a narrative writing independently throughout the week.

Writing

TSW complete a narrative writing independently throughout the week.

 

*Students will type their writing (if finished) in Google Classroom. TTW print student writings to go over in teacher led center tomorrow.*

Writing

Covered in the writing center.

Writing

Finish any writing that needs to be finished.

Phonics: The class will read grade level passages with purpose and understanding.

Example of an Assessment Item Related to the Standard:

In paragraph 3, what does the phrase “He did not want people to fight back with violence.” tell the reader about MLK Jr.?

What is the main idea of paragraphs 5-6?

 

 

Dates:  Dec.10-Dec.21, 2018                                      Subject / Grade: ELA / 3rd           
 

STANDARDS:  RL.3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.7, 3.9, 3.10   RI.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7, 3.9, 3.10   RF.3.3d, 3.4a, 3.4c    L.3.1d, 3.1e, 3.1f, 3.1h, 3.1i, 3.2b, 3.2c, 3.2d, 3.3a, 3.5b, 3.5a, 3.5c, 3.6   SL.3.1, 3.1abcd, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6    W.3.3, 3.3abcd, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6

Week 1  (December 10-14)  

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

TTW tell students that this week we will practice and review our reading skills for the second nine weeks with learning about Christmas around the World. TTW then pass out to students Christmas in Australia and Mexico. The class will read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

 

TTW supplement with other Christmas books and Bailey question stems.

Comprehension

The class will read a passage about Christmas in India and Israel. Students will then use the passage to answer the questions that follow.

 

Students will complete a daily grade.

Comprehension

The class will read a passage about Christmas in Ireland and Germany.

Students will then use the passage to answer the questions that follow.

 

TTW supplement with other Christmas books and Bailey questions stems.

Comprehension

  The class will read a passage about Christmas in South Africa and Greenland.

Students will then use the passage to answer the questions that follow.

 

TTW supplement with other Christmas books and Bailey questions stems.

Comprehension

Students will complete a comprehension and vocabulary daily grade independently.




Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts to directly teach:

 Pavlova: meringue topped with whipped cream and fruit (n).

Poinsettias: Mexican flower; can be read or white; used for Christmas decoration (n).

 

Grammar:  TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts to directly teach: traditions- the handing down of customs, ideas, and beliefs from one generation to the next (n). dreidel- a small, 4 sided spinning top (n).

 

 

Grammar:  TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

 

Language

Vocabulary: Two words from text to directly teach: thrive- to grow or to develop well (v). advent- the arrival of a notable person, thing, or event (n).

 

Grammar: TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts to directly teach: figurine- a small statue of a person or thing (n). Object- anything that has shape or form and can be seen or touched (n).

 

Grammar:  TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

Language

Vocabulary: TTW review the words learned this week and skill words.

 

Grammar: :  TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

Writing

TTW introduce Narrative writing. TTW give students an anchor chart explaining the parts to a narrative writing. TTW review the parts, introduce transition words to be used, and students will keep all information in their writing binders.

Writing

TTW review an example of a Narrative Writing. TTW discuss the parts of the writing and ask for student feedback on which part is more interesting and what can be added to the passage.

Writing

TTW remind students of the example they read yesterday, TTW review the part of a Narrative Writing and transition words. TSW complete a narrative graphic organizer telling a story about a topic of their choosing.

Writing

 

 

Students will complete their Narrative graphic organizer if they have not already.

 

*Students finished will begin typing their writings in Google Classroom.

Writing

 

 

Students will finish all writings (typed)

 

*Finished students will conference with the teacher and edit their writings. (typed)

Phonics:  TTW review phonics skills as they read throughout the week.

 

 

STANDARDS:    RL.3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.7, 3.9, 3.10   RI.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7, 3.9, 3.10   RF.3.3d, 3.4a, 3.4c    L.3.1d, 3.1e, 3.1f, 3.1h, 3.1i, 3.2b, 3.2c, 3.2d, 3.3a, 3.5b, 3.5a, 3.5c, 3.6   SL.3.1, 3.1abcd, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6    W.3.1, 3.1abcd, 3.3, 3.3abcd, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6

Week 2  (December 17-21)

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

TTW review all skills with students for the nine weeks test.

TTW also read a Christmas novel with students and use Bailey question stems as they read.

Comprehension

Nine Weeks Test

Comprehension

  The class will complete a Christmas reading activity.

TTW also read a Christmas novel with students and use Bailey question stems as they read.

Comprehension

 The class will complete a Christmas reading activity.

 

TTW also read a Christmas novel with students and use Bailey question stems as they read.

Comprehension

Field Trip

Language

Vocabulary: TTW go over skill words for the test.

Grammar:  TTW review grammar skills for the writing portion of the nine weeks test.

Language

Vocabulary:

Grammar:  

TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

 

Language

Vocabulary: TTW discuss unfamiliar words throughout our novel study.

Grammar:  

TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

 

Language

Vocabulary:  TTW discuss unfamiliar words throughout our novel study.

 

Grammar:  

TTW cover grammar skills with the Narrative Writing instruction.

 

FIELD TRIP

 

Writing

TTW review opinion writing and how they should do this writing to a text for the nine weeks test tomorrow.

Writing

TSW complete writing/typing portion of the test

Writing

TTW read a passage and model how to answer a Narrative Prompt. TSW give feedback and write what the teacher writes. Students will keep this in their writing binder.

Writing

TTW finish writing from yesterday if needed.

Writing

FIELD TRIP

Phonics:   TTW review phonics skills as they read throughout the week.

Example of an Assessment Item Related to the Standard:

Read the sentence underlined in paragraph 3 of the story. What does Howie mean by this sentence?

What makes the two stories alike in the lessons they teach?

What question is answered in paragraph 4?

Which two quotations from the passages “Halloween” and “Day of the Dead” support the idea that they are alike?

Read these sentences from paragraph 2. Which sentence describes how Dereck feels when he speaks these sentences?

Based on the passage “Western Explorers,” how does Lewis and Clark get food on their exploration?

What happened when Cleopatra studied hard?

 Read the sentence from 5. What does Alexander mean when he says “conquered”?

Why did the author include the illustration of the flute in the story?

How do the paragraph headings help the reader understand the text?

According to the diagram in “The Amazing Canal,” what did the pre-canal route go around?

Part A: Which event takes place before the story begins?

Part B: Which detail from the passage supports the  answer to Part A?

What were hot dogs called when they first arrived in America?

What is the main idea of “A Doggone Delicacy”?

What is the meaning of the word essential as it is used in the passage “The Science of Making things Happen?”

 

 

Dates:  Nov. 26-Dec 7, 2018                                           Subject / Grade: ELA / 3rd                              

 

STANDARDS:  RL.3.1, 3.10   RI.3.1, 3.2, 3.4, 3.10   RF.3.3d   L.3.1h, 3.1i, 3.6    W 3.3abcd, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6   SL.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.6

Week 1  (November 26-30) 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

Asking and Answering Questions about Stories

TTW use Ready Book

Introduction- pgs. 78-79

Model and Guide- pgs. 80-81

Guide students while in small groups- pgs.82-83

Comprehension

Ask and Answer Questions About Key Ideas

TTW use Ready Book

Introduction- pgs. 10-11

Model and Guide- pgs. 12-13

Guide students while in small groups- pgs. 14-15

Comprehension

Finding Main Idea and Key Details

TTW use Ready Book

Model and Guide- pgs. 26-27

Guide students while in small groups- pgs. 28-29

 

Comprehension

 Unfamiliar Words

TTW use Ready Book

Model and Guide- pgs. 148-149

Guide students while in small groups- pgs. 150-151

Comprehension

Students will complete a comprehension daily grade independently.

Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: transformed- to change completely (v) fiercely- wild and dangerous (adv)

 

 

Grammar:

Coordinating conjunctions Ready book pages 424-425.  *practice pages/Powerpoint 

Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: offspring- the young of a person animal or plant (n) mound- a small hill or heap of dirt or stones (n)

 

 

Grammar:

Simple and compound sentences

Ready book pages 426-427

*practice sheets/practice writing

Language

Vocabulary: Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: community- A group of people living in the same area or who have something in common with each other. (n) herd- A large group of animals. (n)

 

Grammar:

Simple and compound sentence writing practice. Give students conjunctions and parts of sentences have students complete the sentences correctly.

 

Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: therapy- treatment to heal or relieve a disorder (n) antennae- a pair of long threadlike movable feelers on the head of insects (n)

 

Grammar:

Subordinating conjunctions/Complex sentences

Ready book pg 428-429

Review using interactive notebook, have students practice writing complex sentences

Language

Vocabulary: TTW review the words learned this week and skill words.

 

Grammar: TTW review grammar skills with students and remind them to use them as they read and write today.

Writing

Give students new passage for the week. Review the prompt with students. Students will read the passage and find details that support the prompt. Have students highlight details. *keep in writing binder*

Writing

Tell students to get out the writing for the week. Have students write their details they found yesterday. Remind students about transition words and summarizing the detail.

Writing

Tell students to take out their writing for the week, tell students to finish and details they have not finished. Students will complete the introduction and conclusion.

Writing

Students will finish up any writing they have not. Students will complete their paragraph.

 

*Google classroom will be used to type paragraph*

Writing

Finish any writing/typing that has not been finished.

Phonics:  Each day the TTW go over irregularly spelled words. TSW write these words. TSW then identify where these words can be used in a sentence or picture. 

 

 

 

STANDARDS:   RL.3.1, 3.10   RI.3.1, 3.2, 3.4, 3.10   RF.3.3d   L.3.1h, 3.1i, 3.6    W 3.3abcd, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6   SL.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.6

Week 2  (December 3-7)

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

NWEA Test

Comprehension

NWEA Test

Comprehension

Centers

(25 minutes each task)

1.)    Teacher led Writing- TTW talk with students on what they should be doing and give them time to write their paragraph that is for a grade.

2.)    Class Works

3.)    Independent Work on Ready pages 18-22 and 86-90

 

Comprehension

Centers

(25 minutes each task)

1.)    Vocabulary

2.)    Class Works

3.)    Independent Review of reading standards for the biweekly test tomorrow.

TTW monitor and guide as students work.

Comprehension

Students will complete their fourth biweekly test.

Language

Vocabulary: Review words covered the week before.

Grammar: 

Review skills

Task cards

Practice writing different types of sentences

 

Language

Vocabulary: Review words covered the week before.

Grammar: 

Review skills

Task cards

Practice writing different types of sentences

 

Language

Vocabulary: Review words covered the week before.

Grammar: 

Review skills

Task cards

Practice writing different types of sentences

 

 

Language

Vocabulary:  Addressed in centers.

Grammar: 

Review skills

Task cards

Practice writing different types of sentences

 

Language

Vocabulary: TSW use vocabulary skills as they take their test.

Grammar: TSW apply grammar skills as they complete their work for the day.

Writing

Opinion writing test

Writing

Opinion writing test

Writing

Opinion writing test

Writing

Opinion writing test

Writing

Opinion writing test

Phonics:  Each day the TTW go over irregularly spelled words. TSW write these words. TSW then identify where these words can be used in a sentence or picture. 

Example of an Assessment Item Related to the Standard:

Part A: Which event takes place before the story begins?

Part B: Which detail from the passage supports the answer to Part A?

What were hot dogs called when they first arrived in America?

What is the main idea of “A Doggone Delicacy”?

What is the meaning of the word essential as it is used in the passage “The Science of Making things Happen?”

 

 

  Dates:  Nov. 5-16, 2018                                 Subject / Grade: ELA / 3rd                       

 

STANDARDS:  RL.3.1, 3.3, 3.9  RI.3.1, 3.3, 3.9 for day 1 and 2 of week 1.   RL.3.3, 3.4, 3.7  RI.3.5, 3.7  RF.3.4c  L.3.2b, 3.2c, 3.2d, 3.5a  W.3.1abcd, 3.4, 3.5  SL.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.6

Week 1  (November 5-9) 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

TTW split students up into groups. TTW then give each group a set of review questions. TSW work in groups to complete the questions. TTW then go over the answers with students. She will say all of these skills will be on your 4.5 weeks test tomorrow.

 

Comprehension

Students will complete their 4.5 weeks test.

Comprehension

Character Traits

Guided Instruction

Ready book pgs. 100- 104.

TTW review with students what character traits are. The class will then read the passage. TTW guide students through answering questions 1 and 2. Students will then work independently to complete questions 3-5. TTW then guide students through completing the chart for question 6.

Comprehension

Context Clues, Literal and Nonliteral Language

Model and Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 202- 203

Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 204-205. Let students work in small groups as they complete these pages. TTW go over answers with the students once finished.

Comprehension

Students will complete a comprehension daily grade independently.

Language

Vocabulary: TTW review skill words with students that will be on the test tomorrow.

 

 

Grammar: Students will apply their grammar skills as they finish up their writings.

 

Language

Vocabulary: Students will applied known words to helping them complete their test.

 

Grammar: Students will apply their grammar skills as they finish up their writings.

 

Language

Vocabulary: Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: barge- a flat bottomed boat. conqueror- a person who gains a place or people by force.

 

Grammar: Commas in Address

Direct instruction using Ready book pgs. 432-433.

Language

Vocabulary:  Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: pod- a number of whales clustered together. content- happy with what one has or is.

 

Grammar: Literal and Nonliteral Meanings

Direct instruction using Ready book pgs. 456-457

Language

Vocabulary: TTW review the words learned this week and skill words.

 

Grammar: TTW review grammar skills with students and remind them to use them as they read and write today.

Writing

Students will work independently to finish their graded opinion writing that was started last week. TTW remind them they have until tomorrow to finish.

Writing

Students will complete their independent opinion writings.

Writing

Students will begin working on opinion writing for the week. TTW review prompt with students and discuss finding important details. TSW work on finding details that support prompt.

Writing

Students will complete their graphic organizer using the details they found. TTW remind students to summarize their details and using transition words.

Writing

Students will work on their introduction and conclusions. TTW monitor student work, redirecting students and checking for mistakes.

Phonics:  TTW use a passage to review context clues and practice this skill all week. Each day she will pick a word from the passage for students to define using context clues.

 

 

STANDARDS:  RL.3.1, 3.3, 3.9  RI.3.1, 3.3, 3.9 for day 1 and 2 of week 1.   RL.3.3, 3.4, 3.7  RI.3.5, 3.7  RF.3.4c  L.3.2b, 3.2c, 3.2d, 3.5a  W.3.1abcd, 3.4, 3.5  SL.3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.6

Week 2  (November 12-16) 

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Comprehension

Illustrations, Connecting words to Pictures

Modeled and Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 354-357.

Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 356-357. Let students work in small groups as they complete these pages. TTW go over answers with the students once finished.

Comprehension

Text Features

Modeled and Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 162-165.

Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 164-165. Let students work in small groups as they complete these pages. TTW go over answers with the students once finished.

Comprehension

Text Features: Connecting Words and Pictures in Informational Text

Modeled and Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 284-287.

Guided Lesson- Ready book pgs. 286-287. Let students work in small groups as they complete these pages. TTW go over answers with the students once finished.

Comprehension

Centers/Small Group

(25 min at each task)

1.) Teacher led writing.

2.) Class Works

3.) Independent Review of reading standards for the biweekly test tomorrow.

TTW go over the reading review with students that was done during small group time and she will answer any questions students may have.

Comprehension

Biweekly 3 for the 2ndnine weeks

TTW do one last review with students and then students will complete their test.

Language

Vocabulary: Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: launched- sent flying into the air. tumbling- to fall or collapse.

Grammar:  Punctuating Dialogue

Direct instruction using Ready book pgs. 434-435

Language

Vocabulary: Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: absorb- to take in or soak up. evaporate- to remove water or process of water drying up.

 

Grammar: TTW guide students through a punctuating dialogue activity.

Language

Vocabulary: Two words from texts in Ready to directly teach: device- a piece of equipment to serve a special purpose. canal- a waterway for boats.

 

Grammar:  Possessive Nouns

Direct instruction using Ready book pgs. 436-437.

Language

Vocabulary:  TTW review the words learned this week and skill words.

Grammar: TTW review with students literal and nonliteral meanings.

Language

Vocabulary: TSW use vocabulary skills as they take their test.

Grammar: TSW apply grammar skills as they complete their work for the day.

Writing

Students will begin working on their paragraphs. Using their graphic organizer, they worked on last week. TTW monitor student work.

 

 

 

Writing

TTW give each student a copy of the rubric. Review rubric with students. Have students peer check their writings based on the rubric.

Writing

Students will work on correcting writings based on the peer edits from the previous day. TTW monitor student work and help with student edits.

Writing

(addressed in teacher center)

Writing

Biweekly test day

Phonics: TTW use a passage to review context clues and practice this skill all week. Each day she will pick a word from the passage for students to define using context clues.

Example of an Assessment Item Related to the Standard:

Read the sentence underlined in paragraph 3 of the story. What does Howie mean by this sentence?

What makes the two stories alike in the lessons they teach?

What question is answered in paragraph 4?

Which two quotations from the passages “Halloween” and “Day of the Dead” support the idea that they are alike? 

Read the sentence underlined in paragraph 3 of the story. What does Howie mean by this sentence?

Read these sentences from paragraph 2. Which sentence describes how Dereck feels when he speaks these sentences?

What question is answered in paragraph 4?

Based on the passage “Western Explorers,” how does Lewis and Clark get food on their exploration?

What happened when Cleopatra studied hard?

Read the sentence from 5. What does Alexander mean when he says “conquered”?

Why did the author include the illustration of the flute in the story?

How do the paragraph headings help the reader understand the text?

According to the diagram in “The Amazing Canal,” what did the pre-canal route go around?